Working On Weapons of Mass Destruction For the Iranian Axis Is A Dangerous Job

By Kyle Orton (@KyleWOrton) on November 11, 2014


On Sunday night, five “nuclear energy engineers who worked in the scientific research centre near … Barzeh,” Damascus, were killed when their bus was ambushed, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. One of the engineers is believed to be Iranian technician. Whether they were killed by gun-fire or by a bomb is unclear.

The research centre referred to is the Scientific Studies and Research Centre (SSRC), and this event has an analogue in Syria: At the end of July 2013, a rebel mortar shell hit a bus carrying staff from the SSRC in Barzeh, killing six and injuring nineteen.

The SSRC is located in Jamraya in Mount Qassioun, five miles above Barzeh. The SSRC is entwined with Syria’s military-intelligence apparatus—which is to say the people running Syria before the war—and is responsible for research and production of “nuclear, biological, chemical, and missile-related technology.”

The Hizballah this morning said the perpetrators of Sunday’s killings were “terrorists as part of the ongoing plots of the Zionist entity“. Allowance made for rhetorical excess—the regime’s supporters consider all opposition “terrorist”—it would have to be said that the two obvious suspects are the rebellion and Israel, with the balance of probability favouring the former. It is possible that the Arab States, who are if anything more alarmed by Iran’s soon-to-be-nuclear-backed imperial push into the Arab world than Israel, would do something like this, but the guess has to be that this is beyond their capacity.

Given that Iran is now the “occupying force” in areas of Syria held by Bashar al-Assad’s “regime”—the Iranian-controlled the sectarian militias and foreign Khomeini’ist jihadists which are all that remain of his State power—it is worth considering the unfortunate and mysterious series of accidents that have befallen the staff of Iran’s nuclear weapons energy program.

  • January 15, 2007: Ardeshir Hosseinpour was killed while working on the nuclear program in Isfahan. There are conflicting reports about Hosseinpour’s cause of death and his loyalties before death. There is some suggestion that he sympathised with the opposition within the regime, represented at that time by Mohammad Khatami.
  • January 12, 2010: Quantum Physicist Massoud Ali Mohammadi was killed by an explosives-rigged motorcycle outside his home in Tehran. There was some confusion about whether Mohammadi actually was a nuclear scientist, and he seems to have signed an opposition petition—this at a time when the regime was still in a considerable degree of panic after the Green Revolution of June 2009.
  • October 12, 2010: In Khorramabad, near Iranian Kurdistan, a supposedly accidental fire got out of control at an ammunition base and killed eighteen members of the Pasdaran, the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp (IRGC). Anonymous Iranian officials have said this was “sabotage“.
  • November 29, 2010: Nuclear scientist Majid Shahriari was killed after a man on a motorcycle attached a bomb to the window of his car. A second nuclear scientist, Fereydoon Abbasi, was injured in a similar, simultaneous attack in Tehran. (By coincidence this was the same day Mahmoud Ahmadinejad publicly announced the damage done by Stuxnet.)
  • July 23, 2011: Daryoush Rezaeinejad was struck down in eastern Tehran. It was variously claimed that he was a nuclear scientist—including by the regime’s official outlets—and that he was an electronics student at Khajeh Nasir University in Tehran.
  • November 12, 2011: There was an explosion at Alghadir missile base in Bid Ganeh, ostensibly an ammunition depot, near Tehran, which killed 17 members of the IRGC. Among the slain was General Hasan Moghaddam, a major element in the Iranian missile program—the veritable “founder of the Guard’s surface-to-surface missile systems” according to one Pasdaran commander—who was an engineer by profession but who had trained in China and North Korea on ballistic missile technology.
  • November 28, 2011: North-east of Isfahan, there was an explosion. In this area is Natanz where Iran’s main uranium conversion facility is located.
  • December 11, 2011: An explosion at a steelworks in Yadz killed seven workers and injured a further twelve. This factory also happens to produces the special metals required to build nuclear centrifuges.
  • January 11, 2012: Mostafa Ahmadi Roshan was cut down after two assailants on a motorcycle attached magnetic bombs to his car. Roshan was a chemistry expert and a director of the Natanz uranium enrichment plant. Despite initial efforts to distance Roshan from the Iranian regime’s attempt to produce weapons of genocide—including by Westerners—which included always presenting a picture of Roshan with his son, it soon emerged that Roshan’s intention in his work was the “annihilation of Israel“.

While suspicion fell on Israel for all of these events, some of them seem to be the regime getting rid of people who were either suspected or actual agents of foreign intelligence services, or who were considering defecting.

Israel has struck directly into Syria since the war began, and this we know because of a campaign of leaks by the Obama White House, as part of their now-clear policy of restraining Israel while warming relations with Iran.

Israel had carried out previous operations in Syria.

  • September 6, 2007: Operation ORCHARD: Israel obliterates al-Kibar nuclear weapons facility in Deir Ezzor, which had been constructed certainly in collaboration with North Korea and almost certainly also with Iran.
  • February 12, 2008: Imad Mughniyah, the Hizballah’s most important operations planner, was killed in Damascus when assassins attached a bomb to his car. Before the 9/11 massacre, Mughniyah was responsible for more American murders than any other individual. His attacks included the barracks and Embassy bombings in 1983 and the beating and torture to death of the CIA’s station chief in Beirut, William Francis Buckley and Robert Stethem, an off-duty Naval officer who had the misfortune to be on a plane Mughniyah ordered hijacked. He also helped organise the massacre of Jews in Argentina.
  • August 1, 2008: Muhammad Sulayman, a close clan insider of the regime, who was linked to al-Kibar and was the key intermediary in shipping weapons to the Hizballah, was killed by a sniper in Tartus. WikiLeaks revealed that the U.S. suspected Israel might have been involved.

And these are the known operations since the Syrian war began:

  1. January 30, 2013: Israel devastated a convoy trying to transfer heavy weapons to the Hizballah in Lebanon and struck at a “scientific research centre” north-west of Damascus, the SSRC.
  2. April 28, 2013: Israeli jets flew over Bashar al-Assad’s presidential palace in Damascus and struck a chemical weapons site near the capital, according to UPI via the opposition.
  3. May 3, 2013: While initially reported that Israel struck a chemical weapons plant, it seems that what was actually hit was “a convoy carrying a shipment of advanced long-range ground-to-ground missiles to Hezbollah“—Iranian-made Fateh-110 missiles that were being warehoused near Damascus International Airport and Russian-made Yakhont shore-to-sea cruise missiles. Apparently Iran had delivered these the week before. Interestingly, according to the Wall Street Journal, Israel didn’t even have to penetrate Syrian airspace to do this, rather calling into question those mighty air defences. Flying over Lebanon, “Israeli jets used a sudden burst of speed and altitude to catapult a bomb across the border to the target about 10 miles inside Syria.” (As can be seen from the heading of the Journal piece and its contents, the Obama administration’s leaks were early and thorough.)
  4. May 5, 2013: Israel struck Mount Qassioun, the storage site for Syrian regime’s most advanced missiles—those needed, for instance, to deliver the chemical weapons of mass destruction (CWMD). It is also the home base of the Republican Guard, the most heavily-fortified zone of the capital. According to Ynet, Israel conducted three strikes on the Damascus-to-Beirut road, one of which hit a site near the Fourth Armoured Division’s headquarters in al-Saboura. With the Republican Guard, the Fourth Division are the regime’s Praetorians. In all Israel hit twelve targets, including Iranian-supplied missiles that were en route to the Hizballah, and a Syrian regime facility staffed by members of the IRGC. It has also been reported that the SSRC was hit (again).
  5. July 5, 2013: There were explosions at a naval barracks and weapons depot on the outskirts of Latakia City, around the Mushayrafet al-Samouk district. Yakhont anti-ship missiles may well have been the target and it is certainly possible that this was Israel.
  6. July 27, 2013: The “Revolutionary Leadership Council in Quneitra and the Golan” posted a report on its Facebook page that the Israeli Air Force had struck an army base in Quneitra. The strikes apparently denied the Hizballah access to advanced long-range missiles.
  7. August 1, 2013: An earth-shaking explosion occurred in Wadi al-Zahab, an Alawi-loyalist neighbourhood of Homs City. This was initially reported as being caused by rebel fire on an “ammunitions depot”. It was notable even at the time that there was a large “phosphate processing plant” no more than 800 feet from the previously identified arms depots—and phosphate does not combust or explode in this way, though CWMD would, and Homs was known to be a storage site for such munitions. As it turned out this was an Israeli strike and it was indeed on a chemical weapons facility.
  8. October 30, 2013: A Syrian air defence base near Snobar Jableh village, twenty miles south of Latakia City, housing an Air Force division important to the Assad despotism, was completely destroyed, almost certainly by Israel. The target seems to have been a Russian-made SA-3 battery of S-125 Neva/Pechora surface-to-air missiles, which have a a twenty-mile range. Also hit was “a command center with a radar to track the missiles’ targets and broadcasting antennas to track the missiles as they are launched“. It was also reported that SAM 8 anti-aircraft missiles were destroyed. Initial reports had suggested this was a naval strike but it was an aerial one, and the missiles were struck because the dictator was planning to send them to the Hizballah. It was in response to the Obama administration’s leaks about this operation that Israel struck back, accusing the U.S. of “selling our secrets on the cheap.”
  9. January 2, 2014: Rebel sources said Israel had struck into the Shekh Daher neighbourhood of Latakia City, apparently hitting a warehouse of S-300 missiles.
  10. February 24, 2014: Israeli warplanes struck at the Hizballah just inside Lebanon, in Bekaa’s al-Nabi Shayth.
  11. June 22, 2014: After a civilian vehicle of contractors, carrying out routine maintenance work for the Israeli Defense Ministry in Quneitra, was attacked, injuring two men and murdering one of their sons, Israel struck nine targets inside Syria, killing three soldiers and injuring ten.

In short, while Israel’s interventions in Syria so far have been to try to keep the crisis contained, above all by keeping long-range missiles out of the hands of the Hizballah, it is not beyond the realms of the possible that Israel has sought to complement that intention and buttress her security by damaging the weapons of mass destruction program the Assad tyranny maintains, even as the Obama administration pretends that it has removed Assad’s chemical weapons.

There are some other things worth bearing in mind, primary among them Israel’s increased role in southern Syria. Israel has provided medical care amounting to tens of millions of dollars to wounded Syrians, not just civilians but members of the resistance, too. Israel has also stepped up support to the rebellion in southern Syria.

The basic intention for Israel is to secure the border, and keep it out of the hands of Jabhat an-Nusra, Syria’s al-Qaeda branch. This has involved the provision of de facto strategic cover to the rebellion’s rear in the Quneitra-Deraa area, and the provision of intelligence and weapons, allowing some rebel advances.

It is worth noting that as Nusra (al-Qaeda) attacks the rebellion in Idlib, it has done the same in Deraa. Nusra might no longer have a unified command structure, but with two of its branches openly at war with the rebellion and its other main branch in Qalamoun collaborating with the Islamic State, notably for the raids in Arsal, it rather calls into question the idea that Nusra is helpful to the rebellion.

Nusra has garnered for itself popular support by its military prowess, provision of social services, and dawa (proselytization), but it is foreign-led and even if its rank-and-file, which is majority-Syrian, was drawn in for reasons of resources, the leadership is globalist in outlook, caring nothing for the Syrian State. In other words, Nusra is the Islamic State with a “hearts and minds” campaign, and the mask is beginning to fall.

It was still a mistake for the U.S. to strike at Nusra, even under the cover of the “Khorasan Group,” without also striking the regime, because of the perception—indeed the reality—that this put the U.S. on Assad’s and Iran’s side, but the long-term strategy should always have been to break apart Nusra, neutralising its leadership and drawing the rest of its members into the mainstream insurgency.

Israel has also had to contend in Syria with the fact that Russia is deeply involved on the ground, and using its position for espionage against Israel, data it can be fairly certain is being passed not only to the regime but its masters in Tehran.

And of course if Israel has taken out nuclear scientists in Syria, it is to Iran that the message is directed. As the U.S. moves ever-more-flagrantly toward full-scale détente with the Iranian theocracy, the Obama administration believes it has prevented Israel from attacking the Iranian nuclear-weapons facilities, and they are probably correct. But Israel can still enforce some limits on Clerical Iran.

*                  *                  *                  *                  *


  1. December 7, 2014: Israel struck at least ten sites around Damascus International Airport and in the town of Dimas, near the Lebanese border, destroying long-range Iranian-made missiles that were about to be shipped to the Hizballah. Some reports said that Russian-made surface-to-air S-300s were also hit, and other reports said Israel had struck into Quneitra.
  2. January 18, 2015: An Israeli helicopter has struck into Quneitra, around Mazrat al-Amal, blitzing a Hizballah convoy of at least two vehicles, and killing anything between five and eleven people, at least one of them, Brig. Gen. Mohamad Ali Allahdadi, a member of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corp. Of the dead Hizballah jihadists, three have been named: Abu Ali Tabatabai, the head of the Hizballah’s Radwan Special Operations Unit in Syria; Mohammed Issa (a.k.a. Hajj Abu Issa), a very important Hizballah Special Forces commander; and Jihad Mughniyeh, son of the infamous Imad Mughniyeh, whom there is every indication the Quds Force was grooming to perhaps one day succeed his daddy. The strike came after a Jan. 15 speech by Hassan Nasrallah in which he bragged of having Fateh-110 missiles, which can hit anywhere in Israel. More importantly, Nasrallah said that Hizballah would “consider … any strike against Syria … a strike against the whole of the Resistance Axis,” which is to say that Hizballah would respond to an Israeli attack on Assad/Iran in Syria as if Israel had attacked Lebanon. Israel’s actions sent a very forceful message that this “deterrence” calculation would not work.
  3. April 22, 2015: Israel attacked a Hizballah convoy carrying weapons inside Syria, near the Lebanon border, destroying three trucks and killing one commander, according to al-Arabiya.
  4. April 24, 2015: Tonight, Israel has struck at the bases of the Assad regime’s 155th and 65th strategic missile brigades, stationed in Qalamoun. Residents of Yabrud and Qarah reported the explosions. Former Syrian opposition leader Hadi al-Bahra tweeted that there were reports of attacks on the 92nd battalion, in addition to the attacks on the 155th and 65th brigades. Al-Bahra also tweeted that the 155th brigade is responsible for launching Scud and Scud-B missiles. As ever, Israel refused either to confirm or deny that she carried out the airstrikes. Earlier today, IHS Jane’s Defense Weekly published a report, complete with satellite pictures, that Hizballah had constructed a new airstrip in the Bekaa Valley, which could be used for unmanned aircraft. The airstrip is located about five miles from Hermel City, a little over ten miles from the Syrian border, and was constructed between 2013 and 2014.
  5. April 26, 2015: Israel struck “a group of armed terrorists” as they approached Israel’s border through the Golan Heights with an explosive intended to target Israeli troops.
  6. May 8, 2015: Arab media reported that Israeli fighter jets had bombed a convoy (presumably Hizballah) on the Lebanon-Syria border.
  7. July 29, 2015: Israel has struck into Quneitra against the Assad tyranny. What exactly was hit is a matter of controversy. Hizballah’s Al-Manar reported that Israel killed two members of the National Defence Forces just outside Hadar, a Druze-majority town. But SOHR reported that a car carrying members of the Hizballah and the NDF was targeted and that in fact three members of the NDF were killed, plus two Hizballah jihadists. By SOHR’s reckoning, the NDF unit hit by the IAF was led by Druzi commander Samir Kuntar (see below).
  8. August 20, 2015: After four missiles were fired by the Iran-controlled terrorist group Islamic Jihad from Quneitra into the Israeli-controlled Golan Heights and Upper Galilee, Israel responded with airstrikes “against more than a dozen Syrian military posts, weapons storage sites and artillery pieces”. Two SAA soldiers were killed in those strikes, according to SOHR.
  9. August 21, 2015: As a follow-on to yesterday’s response to rocket-fire from Quneitra, Israel has struck into the Golan and destroyed a car. SANA naturally said it was a civilian vehicle. SOHR said five NDF were killed. Israel’s Channel 2 said four Islamic Jihad terrorists were killed, along with an SAA officer and an Iranian officer, who were in the vehicle. Israel issued a formal protest (demarche) to the world powers that negotiated the nuclear agreement with Iran, saying that the attack upon her was “facilitated and directed” by Saeed Izaadhi, an Iranian operative “who heads the Palestinian unit” of the Quds Force. The Iran deal releases funds the Quds Force can use for further attacks on Israel.
  10. October 30, 2015: Israeli warplanes struck at two targets in the Damascus countryside area of Qalamoun, close to the Lebanese border, at 23:00, according to Syria Mubasher, an opposition-affiliated news site. Israel hit a military facility near Ras al-Ayn (not to be confused with the town of the same name in Hasaka Province) and another site in al-Qatifa area. It is still unknown what damage was caused and whether there were any casualties. Syria Mubasher said that Israeli jets entered Syrian airspace from Lebanon—and Lebanese websites did report seeing Israeli planes over Lebanon on Friday evening. If true, this is the first Israeli strike at the Assad regime since the Russian intervention in Syria began on Sept. 30.
  11. November 1, 2015: Israel was reported by the pro-Syrian-opposition outlet to have “bombed three warehouses containing scud missiles at the 155th Brigade [base] in western Qalamoun’s Qutayfa area, completely destroying the above-ground [installations].” The strikes allegedly took place at 21:30 and Israeli jets entered Syria via Lebanese airspace. Pro-Hizballah outlets also reported the strikes on the 155th Brigade base.
  12. November 11, 2015: At 18:00, Israel struck targets around Damascus, according to regime media, backed up by other images and videos on social media. Whether Israel hit a weapons shipment from Iran to Hizballah, or some other Iran-run terrorist asset or weapons cache in Syria that was not intended for transfer is unclear. Later reports from opposition sources say Israel entered Syrian airspace in Qalamoun, via Lebanon, and attacked several Hizballah outposts—seemingly weapons warehouses—near Damascus airport.
  13. November 23, 2015: During the evening, Israeli jets reportedly “launched two raids on a joint Assad forces and Hizballah position in the Ras al-Maara mountains,” in Qalamoun, according to two separate pro-opposition reports. “This was immediately followed by a third raid that targeted a position in the Qara mountains. The Israeli planes resumed their attack with a fourth air raid after several minutes, targeting a Hizballah position in western Qalamoun’s Flita Mountains.” The report added that the Israeli airstrikes had killed eight Hizballah jihadists and five SAA troops. At least “dozens” of other pro-regime forces, local and foreign, were injured.
  14. December 19, 2015: Israeli airstrikes around Jaramana, an area ten miles southeast of Damascus populated by Christians and Druze, reportedly destroyed four long-range missiles and killed Samir Kuntar, something seeming confirmed by Kuntar’s brother. Kuntar, a Lebanese Druze who was disowned by his own community for his cruelty and fanaticism, is most infamous for, at the age of 16, killing a police officer in Israel and kidnapping 31-year-old Danny Haran and his 4-year-old daughter, Einat, in April 1979 and making the girl watch as he murdered her father before crushing the child’s skull on a rock with his rifle butt, for which he served time in prison until he was released in a prisoner swap. An Iranian agent, Kuntar has worked in the last few years to recruit Hizballah-style militias from among the Syrian Druze and especially to expand Iran’s terrorist networks inside Syria toward Israel’s border. Kuntar’s most recent crime was to be the conduit for an Iranian Active Measure that got a moderate Syrian rebel lynched by Druzi inhabitants of the Golan Heights, mobilized by an Iranian messaging campaign that Israel was supporting al-Qaeda to massacre the Druze.
  15. February 16, 2016: Israel launched three airstrikes south of Damascus. The immediate trigger is reasons unclear.
  16. June 6, 2016: In Homs, Israel attacked the base of Assad’s elite Fourth Armoured Division, according to Zaman al-Awsl, quoting a regime military source.
  17. July 4, 2016: Israel struck back against the Assad regime after some “unusual” cross-border fire damaged the separation fence in the Golan.
  18. July 25, 2016: After Assad’s forces fired across the border, Israel struck from the air at regime targets in Quneitra.
  19. August 22, 2016: After Assad’s forces shelled Israel, Jerusalem responded with airstrikes on a regime military position in the Golan.
  20. August 24, 2016: According to Syrian opposition sources, Israel launched three airstrikes against Hizballah positions in Qalamoun. Jerusalem refused to comment (as usual) and Hizballah denied (as usual).
  21. November 30, 2016: In the early hours of the morning, Israel conducted at least two airstrikes into the Greater Damascus area, specifically striking Sabboura, about five miles north-west of the city. It appears that one target was a base of the Fourth Armoured Division, one of the Assad tyranny’s Praetorian units. This might have been aimed at a weapons stockpile or at one of the leaders of Lebanese Hizballah. The second target seems to be a moving convoy on the Beirut-Damascus Highway, almost certainly carrying weapons to the Hizballah jihadists.
  22. January 13, 2017: Israel bombed Mezzeh military airport, one of Assad’s most heavily-guarded facilities in the capital.
  23. February 8, 2017: Israel shelled into Syria after a rocket attack in Ramat Hagolan.
  24. April 27, 2017: A round of Israeli airstrikes in eastern Damascus, near the international airport, destroyed a depot stocked with weapons shipped into Syria by the Iranian regime, designed to outfit an array of pro-Assad militias, specifically Shi’i jihadist groups led by Iran’s Lebanese proxy, Hizballah. The Israeli Intelligence Minister, Israel Katz, speaking from the United States, told Israeli Army Radio: “I can confirm that the incident in Syria corresponds completely with Israel’s policy to act to prevent Iran’s smuggling of advanced weapons via Syria to Hizballah”.
  25. April 29, 2017: Israel struck at an Assad military base in Qunaytra.
  26. September 6, 2017: About twenty minutes before midnight [British time], Israel launched airstrikes from Lebanese airspace that demolished Al-Tala’i Research Centre in Masyaf, twenty miles west of Hama City. Al-Tala’i is under the authority of the Scientific Studies and Research Center (SSRC), which is the multiply-anctioned agency that controls the Asad regime’s weapons of mass destruction program. Al-Tala’i was one of three facilities—the other two being in Dummar and Barzeh near Damascus—that the BBC exposed in May 2017 were producing chemical WMD in defiance of the 2013 “deal” that supposedly eliminated Asad’s CWMD. Al-Tala’i is also believed to have been involved in the creation of barrel bombs. This strike occurred ten years to the day after Israel’s Operation ORCHARD, which destroyed al-Kibar reactor in the deserts of Deir Ezzor. Amos Yadlin, the director of the Institute for National Security Studies at Tel Aviv University, who was the chief of Israeli military intelligence from 2006 to 2010 and took part in the strike that disarmed Saddam Husayn in 1981, wrote in the New York Times describing the meaning of this attack. Yadlin said this attack was meant to accomplish five goals: (1) extending the Begin Doctrine that refuses to allow regional states to develop WMD; (2) politically messaging Israel’s displeasure with Iran approaching its border; (3) reinforcing Israel’s deterrence, so that its redlines are understood to be serious; (4) informing Russia that Israel will not be restrained by Moscow’s presence in Syria; and (5) “The final message—and perhaps the most important—is the moral one. … The facility that was hit produces chemical weapons, barrel bombs and a variety of other weapons that the Assad regime has used to massacre innocents. Destroying it could save countless lives”.
  27. About 00:30 local time [22:30, 1 Dec., British time], Israel launched airstrikes at an Iranian base in al-Kiswah, outside Damascus. This base was first reported on by BBC on 10 November. Satellite images show construction between January and October 2017, the BBC reports, and the images show “a series of two-dozen large low-rise buildings—likely for housing soldiers and vehicles. In recent months, additional buildings have been added to the site. … The images of the base do not reveal any signs of large or unconventional weaponry which means if it was a base it would most likely be to house soldiers and vehicles. One source said it was possible that senior Iranian military officials may have visited the compound in recent weeks. … [I]t is not clear whether the facility is currently occupied. … Analysts estimate up to 500 troops could be based at the site.” The pro-Asad coalition claimed to have intercepted Israel’s missiles, and presented  what was targeted as a weapons depot. The Turkish state media said the base contained pro-regime soldiers and a munitions factory. It appears Israel launched the strikes from Lebanon. It was initially unclear if Iran had assets—from the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC), Lebanese Hizballah, or IRGC-controlled militiamen from Iraq, Afghanistan, or elsewhere—at the base. Later reports suggested that twelve Iranians were killed in the strike.

9 thoughts on “Working On Weapons of Mass Destruction For the Iranian Axis Is A Dangerous Job

  1. Not George Sabra

    Any idea what weapons Israel has given to FSA? My understanding is that they have people in the MOC in Jordan through which the TOWs pass through to southern FSA groups rather than arming anyone directly.


    1. KyleWOrton Post author

      My understanding is also that Israel is involved in the Jordanian MOC and in defending Jordan’s borders. The specifics are obviously being kept under close wraps but one open-source case is Sharif as-Safouri. See here:

      Safouri visited Israel five times and was provided “with ‘basic medical support and clothes’ as well as weapons, which included 30 Russian [rifles], 10 RPG launchers with 47 rockets, and 48,000 5.56 millimeter bullets.”

      Liked by 1 person

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